- Bones and joints
- Ligaments and tendons
- Blood vessels
The ankle joint consists three bones: The ankle bone (Talus), shin bone (Tibia), which holds the Talus at the lower end along with a parallel thinner bone (Fibula) and the heel bone (calcaneus). The talus has a socket-like structure which allows it to work like a one-directional hinge.
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Ligaments and Tendons
Ligaments and Tendons serve similar functions but in slightly different ways. While they are both referred to as “soft tissue” structures, ligaments attach bones to bones while tendons attach muscles to bones. Both of them are made of collagen fibers.
Muscles work by stretching and contracting, which allows us to walk, run and jump. Below are some of the most prominent muscles of the lower leg:
- The peroneals (peroneus longus and peroneus brevis) are located on the outside edge of the ankle and are mainly responsible for bending the foot down and out.
- The calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) connect to the calcaneus by the Achilles tendon. When the calf muscles tighten, they bend the ankle down.
- The tibialis posterior muscle supports the arch of the foot and helps turn the foot inward.
- The tibialis anterior pulls the ankle upward.
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The nerves on the outer edge and front part of the ankle control muscle movement and provide sensation to the top and outside edge of the foot.
There are many arteries which supply blood to the ankle such as the dorsalis pedis, tibial artery, etc. Without adequate blood supply, the muscles of the ankle would not be able to function and would cause significant impairments.
We have 6 clinics located across the GTA: Etobicoke, Oakville, Mississauga, North York, and Toronto (King Street West and Yonge Street. If you are suffering from foot or ankle problems you may benefit from treatment. Don’t suffer any longer! Call or email us today and we will be happy to answer all of your questions.
You can book an appointment for Ankle Anatomy: Click here to book an appointment
While muscular pain is an inevitable part of life, some suffer from it for a long period of time and others proactively seek pain relief through massage therapy. Massage therapy is the scientific manipulation of the soft tissues of the body and it is used as a healing technique. Our skin is the largest organ of our body. While regular massage has tremendous health benefits, it is important to get it from a skilled therapist. Massage therapy has proven that it rids the body of physical discomfort and also improves a person’s mental & physical capacity without the use of prescription of medicines.
Some benefits of massage therapy are:
- Improved Joint mobility
- Reduced pain
- Enhanced blood circulation
- Reduced stress
- Reduced muscle tension
- Immediate health benefits
- Reduced intensity of headaches
- Relief from Insomnia
Also read, Best Physiotherapy Treatment in Oakville
Massage therapy is not just for the skin and muscles, it can also help to reduce high blood pressure, lower chances of depression and relieve headaches.
Various Types of Massage:
- Swedish massage (Relaxation, stress relief)
- Foot massage (Improves circulation, reduction of trigger points)
- Hand massage (Enhanced circulation, reduction of your trigger points)
- Deep tissue massage (repetitive strain, postural problems, recovery from injury)
- Sports massage (Preventing and treating injury and enhancing athletic performance)
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Stress is one of the most significant factors that impact psychological and physical health. Massage therapy can be used to treat both acute and chronic conditions.
Causes: According to the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA) Consumer survey, 72% of individuals surveyed claim their primary reason for receiving a massage in the previous 12 months was for medical reasons (43%) or stress-related (29%).
A growing body of research supports the health benefits of massage therapy for conditions such as stress, low-back pain and more.
Effect: There are innumerable benefits to be achieved through regular massage therapy treatments from a Registered Massage Therapist. Whether your need is to have a moment of relaxation, reduce muscle tension or attain relief from chronic pain, a therapeutic massage can enhance your overall sense of emotional and physical well-being.
Also read, Physiotherapy Etobicoke
How is it Important in today’s life?
Well, our brain and muscles need time to rest once in awhile if they are expected to move, think, and be productive forever. Seek help from a Massage Therapist to find relief from your symptoms. If you take care of your body today it will be there for you tomorrow! Adding massage therapy to your healthcare/recovery plan will provide natural relief without the aid of painkillers.
Don’t continue to suffer! Book an appointment with us to improve your health.
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It is always an inconvenience when our bodies don’t perform the way we want them to. It is especially worrisome when we don’t understand why we aren’t feeling at our best. Many times, the feeling of being “off” can be attributed to a vestibular problem. Vestibular disorders can affect a person in numerous ways, and often without any pattern. The vestibular system includes the parts of the inner ear and brain that help control balance and eye movements. It consists of five sensory organs that provide our brain with information about head position and movement.
People with vestibular disorders often experience problems with vertigo, dizziness and visual disturbance. Although dizziness & vertigo can occur in people of any age, it is more common amongst older adults. The feeling of dizziness can be tough to manage and might cause someone to restrict their physical activities and social engagements in order to prevent an injury from a fall. Other typical, secondary problems that can arise from vestibular disorders are nausea/vomiting that reduced the ability to focus or concentrate, and fatigue.
Evidence has shown that vestibular rehabilitation can be effective in improving symptoms related to many vestibular disorders. Symptoms due to vestibular disorders can reduce the quality of life and slow down all aspects of our daily routine.
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Some common symptoms are:
- Dizziness and imbalance
- Decreased in muscular strength and flexibility
- Increased joint stiffness
- Reduced on stamina
- Vision disturbance
- Hearing changes
- Psychological changes
Diagnosis and treatment are not always the only solution for vestibular disorders. It is important to understand some common, significant limitations in order to better manage them.
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Some common limitations are:
- Balance is commonly taken for granted until it is impaired
- People with vestibular disorders can suffer cognitive impacts, such as poor concentration, memory, and word recall
- People also restrict their movement and activity level to avoid pain
It is important to note that most of these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions and should be discussed with a healthcare professional or a skilled physiotherapist. At Triangle Physiotherapy, with the help of our skilled team of physiotherapists, your vestibular issues can become a thing of the past!
What do we mean by Sport Injuries? Its basically any sort of Injury which can be caused when we get too involved and carried away in the spirit of any sport. When the passion is high, the energy is there we tend to suffer from small accidents related to Knee pain, Elbow etc.
What qualifies as a Sports Injury? Its basically any type of injury that might arise from getting too involved and carried away in the spirit of any sport. In the heat of the moment during a sports game, it is easy to ignore smaller annoyances that might progress to become significant sources of pain.
Also read, Physiotherapy Oakville
So, what do many people do when they inevitably suffer a sports injury? The most common answer is to go and visit a doctor. However, we tend to forget that the most effective and immediate assistance we can get is from a physiotherapist. Reducing swelling and providing pain relief are usually the first steps that a physiotherapist will take to promote recovery after an injury.
Advanced progression of the treatment plan usually involves techniques like stretching and providing range of motion and strengthening exercises that are meant to help the injured person regain strength and balance. The physiotherapist will also ensure that you don’t push yourself too far or too fast, thereby helping you prevent re-injury.
Below are some common questions and answers that might be relevant to you:
WHO IS BETTER EQUIPPED TO DIAGNOSE MY INJURY? – Both doctors and physiotherapists have the necessary skills to diagnose your injury. Interestingly the most important thing is that there is a DIAGNOSIS made !
WHO IS BETTER EQUIPPED TO MANAGE/TREAT MY INJURY? – Well, it depends on the injury. For example, it is not uncommon for a physiotherapist to refer a patient to a doctor to ask for a prescription for some anti-inflammatory medication as these are not able to be prescribed by a physiotherapist. However, a physiotherapist will generally provide more detail regarding the injury, as well as provide manual treatment and prescribe a detailed exercise program for the patient that will help promote recovery.
Also read, Physiotherapy Clinic Mississauga
WHEN DO I NEED TO CONSULT A PHYSIOTHERAPIST? – There are many other conditions apart from sports injuries that would require treatment from a physiotherapist. Some of them are:
- Any arthritic conditions
- Treatment of pelvic floor disorders
- Chronic/Overuse injuries
- Muscle or joint issues that might arise during pregnancy
- Vestibular conditions
- Various other muscle strains and sprains
Any of the above-mentioned problems should be treated immediately in order to prevent further aggravation of the condition! Seek the help of our specialists at any of our locations in Etobicoke, Oakville, North York, Mississauga & Toronto and get rid of such dilemmas!
Are your worries all perched on a pillow? And we don’t mean figuratively, but literally, are your worries all about THE PILLOW? Well, you are not in as uncommon a dilemma as you may think. Physiotherapists frequently get queries about pillow related problems.
Sleeping on the wrong, or too worn out a pillow, not only leads to headaches, backaches and neck cramps, but also prevents you from getting a good night’s sleep. Lack of proper sleep can lead to many serious health issues, like obesity, heart disease, diabetes etc.
It is imperative that you choose the right pillow for yourself but the kind of pillow you should pick will depend on your own unique needs as well. A physiotherapist is the best person to tell you exactly what you need. However, here are a few things that you can keep in mind while making a choice –
- Your usual sleeping position
- The shape and size of your head, neck and back
- Desired softness/firmness of the pillow
- Any neck pain, or back ache you may have
- And your budget
Also read, Physiotherapy Clinic in Mississauga
There are a plethora of pillows in the market – cotton, polyester, feather, down, memory foam etc. However, these don’t cater to specific support or pain needs. If you have been injured, or have a particular condition, you will need a pillow that caters best to not just your problem, but also the stage that you are in. There are three main stages –
For each of these three stages, you will need a specific kind of pillow.
Specialty pillows that are designed for the ‘Accommodation’ stage, are pillows that bring in comfort and ease by providing support and stabilizing the existing ailment or disorder. Such pillows are often called Displacement pillows and are often recommended by physiotherapists for short-term pain relief after an injury.
The next stage of an issue or injury is ‘Correction’. At this stage, a doctor or physiotherapist attempts to find a remedy for the cause of the problem, and thereby correct it. Pillows recommended in this stage are often designed to provide support, and sometimes to even change the sleeping position of the injured or ailing person. There are various ‘Supportive’ pillows to meet different support levels, firmness and neck lobe size needs of different patients. There are also specialized ‘Corrective’ pillows, which can reduce headaches, neck pain, joint pain, whiplash discomfort and can even improve nerve function. A physiotherapist can tell you what is the ideal Supportive or Corrective pillow you need, based on your health and body needs.
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Pillows for the last stage, ‘Maintenance’, help to promote good health by returning and keeping the body in its natural alignment. At this stage maintaining the normal curvature of the neck and spine is of utmost importance. While the normal curvature of one person’s neck and spine may differ from another, there are some general guidelines that a physiotherapist can jot down to help you understand your needs better. Comfort and support are the most important of these.
There are also Aqua pillows, which perform all the 3 functions of a pillow:
- Accommodation: Since water is fluid, a person gets customized accommodation that happens in real time, as individual changes their position on the pillow.
- Correction: The volume of water determines the firmness and density of the pillow, which means different amounts of water can be utilized to help correct the neck position of different people in different stages of healing.
- Maintenance: Since the volume of water remains constant until changed manually, it helps maintain the neck posture at all times while sleeping.
A lot of people buy a pillow, try it for a few nights, and then feel it isn’t right for them. Sometimes the pillows can be returned, but more often, people end up having a collection of pillows that they have hardly ever used. An Aqua pillow is a huge savior in this aspect, as it can be customized for each individual! The water levels can be modified to best suit the clinical condition, neck shape and size, and preferred sleeping position of the buyer.
There are also specially designed Orthopaedic pillows for specific conditions like arthritis, fractures and slip discs. A physiotherapist can enlighten you more about these.
Seek the help of our professionals at any of our locations in Etobicoke, Oakville, North York, Mississauga & Toronto, and say goodbye to your pillow problems!
Who doesn’t want to stay flexible, especially as they age? Well, stretching is one very good way to stay flexible! According to the American College of Sports Medicine it’s good to stretch all the major muscle groups at least two times a week.Stretching is an integral part of physiotherapy, and a physiotherapist is the perfect person to guide you how to stretch. Physiotherapists recommend stretching regularly, as it keeps one’s hips and hamstrings flexible later in life, which is very important for easy movement in old age.
Apart from this stretching has many other benefits. Like –
- It increases muscle flexibility
- It improves posture
- It also improves performance in sports & other activities
- It provides relief from stress
- It helps prevent injuries
- It prevents Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness or DOMS, which is the soreness and pain one suffers a few hours to a few days after hectic exercise.
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The first question that many wonder about ,is what body parts should one stretch?
In physiotherapy, stretching the following body parts is considered essential –
- Upper Back
The next thing to take into consideration, is if there is a right amount of time to stretch?
While there is no particular amount of time that physiotherapists suggest you to stretch, recent studies show that 3 sets of 30 second stretches, 5 days per week for 4 weeks helps to strengthen hamstring muscles greatly.
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There are many kinds of Stretching that physiotherapists recommend.
Stretching a muscle to its full extent and holding it for 15 to 30 is known as the Static Stretch. You can exceed this time frame a bit, but don’t stretch until it hurts, as you can end up doing more damage to your muscles than good by over stretching. However, don’t do Static Stretches before a run or sprint, as this can slow down your speed by tiring out the muscles.
Before warming up for a run or other sports, doing Dynamic Stretches is more suitable. Dynamic Stretches are stretches that you do, as you are moving, and hence are called dynamic.
Another effective way of stretching, often used in physiotherapy, is Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretching.
PNF stretching is an advanced type of stretching wherein the targeted muscle or muscle group, is stretched, contracted and finally relaxed. This process is repeated at least 2 to 4 times before moving on to the next muscle group. PNF stretching helps to elongate one’s muscles and was first developed as a muscle therapy by athletes, but is now often used in physiotherapy as a means of increasing flexibility.
Stretching can be used as a preventative precaution, but also to help correct and recover from more serious issues. A physiotherapist can guide you more regarding the stretching exercises that will be best suited to your needs. So visit any of our locations in Etobicoke, Oakville, North York, Mississauga & Toronto, and find out how you can get the most out of stretching!
Summer is here, and with the sun on one’s face and a cool breeze, everyone feels like going out and enjoying some fresh air. Be it a early morning run or a quick swim, a game of tennis with your buddies or you just dribbling the ball all by yourself at the basketball court; this is the season where even the lazy one’s find some energy to be active. Kids in particular love to go out and play in the summers. But with an active lifestyle, or an energetic kid, there is always the chance of sports related injuries or feet fatigue.
Maybe you twisted your ankle while playing tennis? Or your kid got hurt while playing football? Maybe too much running is affecting your feet? Or your friend is having pain in his or her legs post cycling?
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Orthotics might just be the answer to your woes!
The type of Orthotics recommended to you will depend on not just your ailment or injury, but the shape of your feet as well. A physiotherapist can tell you what kind of orthotics you need, by evaluating your injury and the shape of your feet.
The most popular kind of Orthotics include –
- Casual Orthotics – These are inserts or pads that can be worn with regular shoes.
- Custom Orthotics – these are inserts that are specially designed, keeping the shape of your feet and your particular needs in mind.
- Sports Orthotics – these are inserts or pads that help to absorb shock while doing high impact activities. Be it running, jogging, cycling or playing a sport. There are even specialized Orthotics that slip easily into athletic shoes for professional athletes.
- Dress Orthotics – These are inserts that can be put into heels and other fashionable shoes, and are particularly made for women.
- Accommodative Footwear – this refers to special footwear, which can accommodate the Orthotics.
Also read, Physiotherapy Oakville
If you don’t have a sports injury, but are just very active, orthotics can still come to your aid. But do seek your doctor’s advice before using any kind of orthotics.
At Triangle Physiotherapy our health professionals cater to your needs and specifications. With the help of our professionals, you can figure out what is the best solution for you, based on your activities and the needs of your feet. So visit any of our locations in Etobicoke, Oakville, North York, Mississauga & Toronto to stay active with Orthotics!
What exactly is shin splints? Are they treatable? Shin splints is a condition characterized by damage and inflammation of the connective tissue joining muscles to the inner shin bone (tibia). Shin splints are known by many different names such as: Medial Tibial Tenoperiostitus, MTSS, Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome, Tenoperiostitus of the Shin, Inflammatory Shin Pain, Traction Periostitis, and Posterior Shin Splint Syndrome.
Several muscles lie at the back of the lower leg, and are collectively known as the calf muscles. The tibialis posteriror, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallicus and soleus are muscles which lie deep within the calf and attach to the inner border of the tibia. Connective tissues are responsible for attaching these muscles to the tibia known as the tenoperiosteum. Every time the calf contracts, it pulls on the tenoperiosteum. When the tension becomes forced too much or is repeated frequently, damage is caused to the tenoperiosteum. The results are inflammation and pain. Shin splints can also occur in combination with other pathologies that cause shin pain such as compartment syndrome and tibial stress fractures.
Patients who suffer from shin splints experience a pain along the inner border of the shin. In other cases, the patient may experience an ache or stiffness along the inner aspect of the shin that increases with rest (typically and night or first thing in the morning). Areas of muscle tightness, thickening or lumps may also be felt in the same area of pain. There are several factors that predispose patitents to shin splints:
• Excessive training or exercise
• Poor foot posture (especially in patients with flat feet)
• Inappropriate footwear
• Inadequate warm up
• Training on hard or inappropriate surfaces
• Muscle weakness (especially in calve muscles)
• Tightness in specific joints (such as ankle)
• Tightness in specific muscles (calves especially)
• Poor lower limb biomechanics
• Poor training techniques or methods
• Leg length differences
• Poor balance
• Being overweight
• Poor core stability
Also read, Physiotherapy Clinic in Oakville
Physiotherapy treatment for patitents with shin splints is vital to speed up the healing process. Physiotherapy will ensure the most optimal outcome and reduce the likelihood of recurrence. Treatment may comprise of the following:
• Deep tissue massage
• Joint mobilization
• Dry needling
• PNF stretches
• Arch support taping
• The use of orthotics or shock absorbing insoles
• Biomechanical correction
• Ice or heat treatment
• Exercises to improve flexibility, balance, strength, and core stablility
• Activity modification advice
• Anti-inflammatory advice
• Footwear advice
• Weight loss advice where appropriate
Also read, Physiotherapy Clinic in Mississauga
If you happen to suffer from shin splints and you are looking for a way to relieve pain, stress, and improve over-all health, try adding physical therapy to a routine wellness plan. Our physiotherapists at Triangle Physiotherapy can be a powerful ally when combating daily stress, muscle pain, and general health issues when it comes to shin splints. Not only does physical therapy relieve pain, increase energy levels, and improve overall physical and mental performance, it prevents further injuries. Our experienced, professional physical therapists at Triangle Physiotherapy are available at five convienient locations: Etobicoke, Oakville, Mississauga, Toronto, and Kings West. At Triangle we customize every physical therapy session to address your individual needs.
Do your legs tingle, become numb, or feel weak? You may be experiencing Sciatica. The term Sciatica describes leg pain that originates from the lower back and travels through the buttock and down the large sciatic nerve in the back of each leg. Sciatica is not a medical diagnosis in and of itself –it is a symptom of an underlying medical condition. Common lower back problems such as: lumbar herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, and spondylolisthesis can cause sciatica symptoms. Sciatica is often characterized by one or more of the following symptoms:
• Constant pain in only one side of the buttock or leg (rarely in both legs)
• Pain that becomes worse when sitting
• Leg pain that is described as burning, tingling, or searing
• Weakness, numbness, or difficulty moving the leg, foot, and/or toes
• A sharp pain that may make it difficult to stand up or walk
• Pain that radiates down the leg and possibly into the foot and toes
Physiotherapy exercises incorporating a combination of strengthening, stretching, and aerobic conditioning are a central component of almost any sciatica treatment plan.
• Strengthening exercises- Most of these back exercises focus not only on the lower back, but also the abdominal muscles, and the buttock and hip muscles.
• Stretching exercises- Stretches for sciatica are designed to target muscles that cause pain when they are tight and inflexible.
• Low-impact aerobic exercise- Some form of low-impact cardiovascular exercise such as: walking, swimming, or pool therapy is usually a component of recovery, as aerobic activity encourages the exchange of fluids and nutrients to help create a better healing environment.
Also read, Physiotherapy Clinic Etobicoke
When patients engage in a regular program of gentle exercises, they can recover more quickly from sciatica pain and are less likely to have future episodes of pain. As sciatica is due to pressure on the sciatic nerve, it stands to reason that treatment involves removing this pressure. Your physiotherapy treatment aims to achieve this by reducing nerve pressure caused by poorly moving spinal joints as well as easing muscular tension in the lower spine, buttock, and leg.
If you are suffering from sciatica please do not delay. You can achieve the best results when you address the symptoms early!
Patellar tendinopathy (also known as: patellar tendonitis, and tendonitis) is an overuse injury affecting the knee. The patella tendon is a short but very wide tendon that runs from the patella (kneecap) to the top of the tibia. It works with the muscles at the front of the thigh to extend the knee so it can perform physical acts like kicking, running, and jumping. Due to these elements, the patellar tendon has to absorb a lot of this loading and as a result is prone to injury in runners and jumpers. Unlike many running injuries, patellar tendonitis is somewhat more common in men than in women.
The stress on the patellar tendon results in small tears, which the body attempts to repair, but as the injury multiplies, it causes pain from inflammation and weakening of the tendon. When this tendon damage persists for more than a few weeks, it is called, “tendinopathy”.
Initial symptoms of patellar tendonitis can be:
- Anterior knee pain over the patella tendon
- Pain increased from jumping, landing or running activity, and on occasion prolonged sitting
- Onset of pain can be gradual and commonly relates to an increase in sports activities
- Localised tenderness over the patella tendon
- The tendon feeling stiff, mostly first thing in the morning
- The affected tendon may appear thickened in comparison to the unaffected side
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Typically, tendon injuries occur in three areas:
- Musculotendinous junction (where the tendon joins the muscle)
- Mid-tendon (non-insertional tendinopathy)
- Tendon insertion (eg. Into the bone)
If you try to work through your pain, ignoring your body’s warning signs, you could cause increasingly larger tears in the patellar tendon.
Knee pain and reduced function can persist if the problem is not addressed , which can progress to more serious patellar tendinopathy.
Treatment of this condition has two objectives: to reduce inflammation and to allow the tendon to heal. Rest is a must when the knee is painful and swollen. Avoid stair climbing and jumping sports. Keep your knee straight while sitting, and avoid squatting.
Icing the knee for twenty minutes two to three times a day is recommended, especially after any sporting activities. Exercises can also be used to stretch and balance the thigh muscles.
It is advisable however, to contact a physical therapist & approach proper physical therapy before you attempt any of these remedies, to avoid any further damage.